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About The Kemp Model

Page history last edited by rickertc@... 11 years, 11 months ago

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About The Kemp Model


The Kemp Model is another well known instructional design method used to create effective instruction.  This model was developed by Morrison, Ross, and Kemp to provide a holistic approach for developing instruction (Hanley, 2009). Figure 1 depicts the version of this model which was revised in 1994 (Gustafson, Branch, & Eric Clearinghouse, 2002). 




Figure 1.  (The Morrison, Ross, & Kemp Model (Gustafson, Branch, & Eric Clearninghouse, 2002, p.47).


Notice in the diagram that the model is a continuous circle, with no specific beginning point, meaning that the nine elements are mutually supporting.  This model suggests a less rigid approach to the instructional design process, allowing the experienced designer to use personal judgment regarding where to begin the process and which steps are necessary to solve the instructional problem (Akbulut, 2007).  The steps may be performed in any order either independently or simultaneously at the discretion of the designer (Gustafson, 2007). The interaction between the steps makes this model a good choice for a project where multiple team members are working together to complete the instruction (Akbulut, 2007). 



There are nine elements in the center of the process which Morrison, Ross, and Kemp believe are essential for effective planning (Gustafson, Branch, & Eric Clearninghouse, 2002).   To implement the model an instructional designer, in no particular order, would:


  1. Identify instructional problem: 

What is it that you need to teach? The instructional designer may conduct a needs assessment, goal analysis, or performance assessment to determine the instructional goal.


  1. Examine intended audience: 

Describe the demographic characteristics of the learner and their background knowledge .


  1. Analyze subject content:

Consider the real world applications of the content from the leraner’s perspective.  Determine the learning context and performance context. What knowledge and skills, procedures, and communication is necessary?


  1. Write instructional objectives

Define the cognitive and behavioral skills the learner will perform as a result of the instruction. Include criteria and conditions specific to the instruction.


  1. Order instructional content

Determine a logical sequence for the instruction while considering variables such as prerequisites and level of difficulty.


  1. Decide how to present material

Develop instructional strategies for recall, integration, organizational, and elaboration. Examples include memorization, generating questions, categorizing, and creating diagrams.


  1. Develop the instruction

Prior to instruction, conduct a pre-test, state the objectives to the learners, and present and overview to the learner.  Decide how to introduce your “message” to the audience.


  1. Develop evaluation instruments:

Conduct formative and summative evaluations based on standards of achievement.  Include opportunities for self-evaluation, as well as testing for skills, behaviors, and attitudes.


  1. Select relevant resources:

Identify supplementary resources such as media and examples, equipment, and even personnel to support your instruction.

(Morrison, Ross, & Kemp, 2007)



      It is also important to note that the nine elements are not the only phases of this design method.  Morrison, Ross and Kemp surrounded these nine elements with outer ovals indicating that they are ongoing processes throughout development and implementation of the instruction.  The first oval indicates the importance of revision and formative evaluation at each stage of the design process.  The outer oval depicts one of the most unique features of this model.  While evaluation and implementation are commonly included in other models, there are 3 elements which typically lack in other models implementation.  Specifically, the planning, project management, and support services phases.  Using Kemp’s model, throughout the design process, a designer must select appropriate resources, plan on a continual basis, and manage the project appropriately given the constraints.  (Henley, 2007).  The outer oval are factors which contribute to making this model a truly comprehensive process.  

     There are both strengths and weaknesses of the Kemp Model.  The previously discussed ADDIE method is linear and easy to remember given the acronoym (A is for Analysis, D is for Design, and so on).  The Kemp method has many more steps, making it more difficult to remember the process.  A designer new to this model would likely have to reference the diagram throughout the process.  The details could also be considered a strength because the Kemp model provides more information to a designer as far as what to do.  Instead of just saying "Analyze", the Kemp model instructs a designer to analyze the learners, the problem, and the task.   
     A novice designer may not opt to use this model due to the lack of direction.   As mentioned previously, there is no beginning or ending point which could be confusing. That characteristic could also be considered a strength.  This highly adaptable model allows an experienced designer to be creative and start or stop the process wherever it is deemed appropriate. 

Comments (2)

Patrick Moseley said

at 10:51 pm on Jul 18, 2010

We ought to remove the underlines from your phases. Underlining is usually reserved for links.


Patrick Moseley

rickertc@... said

at 8:44 pm on Jul 20, 2010

done, thanks

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